Atm adaptation layer validating the atm header
In addition, the ATM physical medium can extend up to 60 kilometers or more using single-mode fiber and long-reach lasers, so it can readily support campus-wide connectivity and even private metropolitan area networks (MANs).
TCP/IP protocol suite, application layer message transfer protocol. A communication protocol is a set of rules and message formats that entities must follow to exchange those messages. ISO formulated the OSI model which consists of seven layers of specified protocol standards for network communications software. Defines the electrical and mechanical specifications of the transmission medium and the interface hardware. This layer is responsible for data representation translation between nodes. This layer is responsible for establishing, synchronizing and maintaining communications channels between nodes. The OSI model has come to be the de facto organizational model for describing protocol layering. Responsible for packing the data from the physical layer into frames. This layer is responsible for routing data between nodes. Additionally, it describes the method for how data is sent and received on the medium. Encryption and compression protocols are usually categorized here. Computer networks, television networks, and telephony networks in particular are experiencing an unprecedented technological expansion, fueled by consumer demand.The ever-increasing need for transportation, due in part to the expansion of the world-wide market and the popularity of suburbia, has led to an increased use of automobiles and airplanes for business and pleasure.